Tracom Flumes

Almost all size and types of flumes manufactured by TRACOM can be fitted to a metering manhole. Simply choose the flume that best fits your flow rates and flow stream composition and it will be integrated into your manhole.

TRACOM offers a wide variety of flumes including:

Parshall  Palmer-Bowlus  HS / H / HL  Trapezoidal  Cut Throat

Mounting brackets and sensor cavities are available for pH, temperature, and dissolved oxygen sensors. Multiple mounting brackets are available on a given flume to allow for simultaneous discharge and pretreatment monitoring.  Sampling ports are also available to assist in automatic sampling. For a complete description and rating of each flume type, consult the sizing guides in the FLUME section.
If you do not find a product you are looking for, please e-mail tim@swstld.com for price quotes.

Parshall flumes

Developed in 1922 by Ralph L. for the Unites States Bureau of Reclamation, Parshall flumes are by far the most widely used type of flume in permanent flow monitoring installations. With a wide flow range, simple flow meter calibration, and self-cleaning nature, Parshall flumes are the first choice of many engineers and end users. The flumes themselves are sized by throat width (1″ to 144″) and can accommodate maximum flow rates up to 108 MGD. As with all flumes, Parshall flumes must be installed plumb and level.

TRACOM Parshall flumes can be configured with a variety of options for your convenience. Examples include:

* FRP grating
* Riser boxes
* Stilling wells
* Staff gauges
* Ultrasonic mounting brackets
* Probe cavities (pH and level)
* Nested flumes
* Pipe adapters
* Sample tube
* Multi-piece construction
* Removable bubble tube
* Removable sample tube.

Listed in the table below are various Parshall flumes sizes, maximum flow rates (GPM and M3PM) as well as the maximum usable head.

 

Size

Maximum Flow (GPM)

Maximum Flow (M3PM)

Maximum Head (Feet)

1″ 87.27 0.330 0.70
2″ 214.68 0.813 0.80
3″ 515.94 1.953 1.10
6″ 1,754.46 6.641 1.50
9″ 3,978.9 15.060 2.00
12″ 7,240.6 27.406 2.50
18″ 11,021.4 41.716 2.50
24″ 14,857.6 56.236 2.50
36″ 22,615.6 85.600 2.50
48″ 30,487.5 115.395 2.50
60″ 38,425.0 145.439 2.50
72″ 46,449.2 175.810 2.50
96″ 62,617.0 237.005 2.50
120″ 89,178.6 337.541 2.75
144″ 155,719.6 589.399 3.50

 

 

 

Cut-throat Flume

The Cut-throat flume was developed in the mid-1960’s at Utah State University’s Water Research Laboratory for use in flat gradient channels. The flume was specifically designed for satisfactory operation in both free flow and submergence conditions. The name of the flume is derived from the absence of an extended throat section (as found in the Parshall). The flat bottom of the flume greatly simplifies construction and installation. The flume is well suited for use in existing channels as a conduit drop is not required (as with the Parshall). Variations on the flume are common, so caution is advised in the specification of a Cut-throat.

TRACOM Cut-throat flumes can be configured with a variety of options for your convenience. Examples include:

  • FRP grating
  • Riser boxes
  • Stilling wells
  • Staff gauges
  • Ultrasonic mounting brackets
  • Probe cavities (pH and level)
  • Nested flumes
  • Pipe adapters
  • Sample tube
  • Multi-piece construction
  • Removable bubble tube
  • Removable sample tube

Listed in the table below are various Cut-throat flumes sizes, maximum flow rates (GPM and M3PM) as well as the maximum usable head.

Flume Length (Feet)

Throat Width (Feet)

Maximum Flow (GPM)

Maximum Flow (M3PM)

Maximum Head (Feet)

1.5′ 0.083′ 56.2 0.213 0.50
1.5′ 0.167′ 114.4 0.433 0.50
1.5′ 0.333′ 232.9 0.882 0.50
1.5′ 0.667′ 474.0 1.794 0.50
3.0′ 0.167′ 321.9 1.218 1.00
3.0′ 0.333′ 655.0 2.479 1.00
3.0′ 0.667′ 1,333 5.045 1.00
3.0′ 1.333′ 2,712 10.265 1.00
4.5′ 0.25′ 866.3 3.279 1.50
4.5′ 0.50′ 1,763 6.673 1.50
4.5′ 1.00′ 3,551 13.441 1.50
4.5′ 2.00′ 7,301 27.634 1.50
9.0′ 1.00′ 8,719 33.001 3.00
9.0′ 2.00′ 17,744 67.161 3.00
9.0′ 4.00′ 36,104 136.654 3.00
9.0′ 6.00′ 54,708 207.070 3.00

 

Trapezoidal Flumes

trapez1Trapezoidal flumes, originally developed to measure flows in irrigation channels, are well suited for low flow applications in conduits and manholes. For storm water or agricultural applications, the trapezoidal flume is superior to the Parshall flume for several reasons. The shape of the trapezoidal flume conforms to the normal shape of culverts and ditches reducing installation costs. Also, the straight through design allows for the passage of large amounts of trash and reduces the problem of silting.

Trapezoidal flumes are generally sized by the throat width and geometry. A number of styles are commercially available. The most commonly used types are listed in the chart below. While not as common, several other type of trapezoidal flumes that may be encountered include: Small 60° V, 2″ 30° WSC, 4″ 60° WSC, 2″ 30° CSU, and #2.

TRACOM Trapezoidal flumes can be configured with a variety of options for your convenience. Examples include:

FRP grating
Stilling wells
Staff gauges
Ultrasonic mounting brackets
Probe cavities (pH and level)

Pipe adapters (typically for manholes only)
Sample ports
Multi-piece construction
Removable bubble tube
Removable sample tube

Listed in the table below are a selection of Trapezoidal flumes with their maximum flow rates (GPM and M3PM) as well as the maximum usable head.

Size

Maximum Flow (GPM)

Maximum Flow (M3PM)

Maximum Head (Feet)

Large 60° 155.87 0.590 0.56
Extra Large 60° 694.7 2.629 1.00
2″ 60° WCS 744.74 2.819 0.90
2″ 45° WCS 1,161.1 4.395 0.89
12″ 45° (#1) 3,176.6 12.023 1.29

H-Flumes

htype2

H-Flumes, available in HS, H, and HL styles, provide excellent accuracy and rangibility for flow in open channels where free-falling discharge conditions can occur. These flumes were designed and are ideally suited for storm water run-off monitoring with or without the optional approach section. The flat bottom of the flume allows for the passage of silt, while the open face allows for the passage of larger debris. H-flumes are sized by the depth of the flume and the geometry of the discharge face. Generally, H-flumes should only be used in installations where a free discharge can occur.

TRACOM H-flumes can be configured with a variety of options for your convenience. Examples include:

* FRP grating
* Stilling wells
* Flow strengtheners
* Ultrasonic mounting brackets
* Probe cavities (pH and level)
* Inlet pipe adapters
* Sample tube
* Integral approach section
* Staff gauge
* Removable bubble tube
* Removable sample tube

Listed in the table below are various H-type flumes, maximum flow rates (GPM and M3PM, and the maximum usable head.

Size

Maximum Flow (GPM)

Maximum Flow (M3PM)

Maximum Head (Feet)

0.4′ HS 38.2 0.1445 0.40
0.6’HS 102.8 0.389 0.60
0.5′ H 156.3 0.592 0.50
0.75 H’ 429.5 1.626 0.75
1.0′ H 884.1 3.346 1.00
1.5′ H 2,432.5 9.207 1.50
2.0′ H 4,981.7 18.856 2.00
2.5′ H 8,706.7 32.954 2.50
3.0′ H 13,778.2 52.188 3.00
4.5′ H 37,923.6 143.541 4.50
4.0′ H 52,554.5 198.919 4.00

Palmer-Bowlus Flume

The takes its name from its inventors, Harold Palmer and Fred Bowlus. The flume was developed for the Los Angeles County Sanitation Department in the mid-1930’s. The flume was specifically designed to be a simple and effective wastewater flow measuring device. The flume is essentially a restriction in the channel and, as such, is sized according to the size of the pipe to which it is to connect to. It is important to note that calibration of a Palmer-Bowlus flume under flow conditions can be difficult. An illustration of the proper technique is available for download.

Palmer-Bowlus flumes are available in five configurations: 4D+1″, 2D+1″, Insert, Cut-Back, and Portable (D=channel size in inches). For new construction the 4D+1″ style is preferable. The 2D+1″ style is more common in retrofit construction although a problem can occur in that the head measurement is made upstream from the flume itself. TRACOM does not recommend the use of the 2D+1″ style considering the minimal cost difference and the potential for incorrect measurement that the 2D+1″ allows . The Insert style is intended to fit in existing U-channels. Unlike the 4D+1″ or 2D+1″ styles, the Insert style does not have the standard 2″ inlet and outlet flanges. The overall geometry of the Insert style is extremely similar to the 2D+1″. For temporary installations, typically I&I studies, Portable and Cut-Back Palmer-Bowlus flumes are available. Cut-Back flumes are essentially Insert type flumes with the sidewall above the throat ramp cut out. The removal of the sidewalls allows for the flume to be inserted in the throat of the outlet pipe of a manhole. Finally, for short term installations were flow profiling is desired, TRACOM offers the portable Palmer-Bowlus. A modified 4D+1″ style, the portable Palmer-Bowlus comes standard with a pipe stub, inflatable bladder, bulls-eye level, and leveling legs.

Photos of the four most common Palmer-Bowlus types are shown below.

bowlus

TRACOM Palmer-Bowlus flumes can be configured with a variety of options for your convenience. Examples include:

  • FRP grating
  • Riser boxes
  • Stilling wells
  • Ultrasonic mounting brackets
  • Probe cavities (pH and level)
  • Pipe adapters
  • Sample tube
  • Multi-piece construction
  • Removable bubble tube
  • Removable sample tube

Listed in the table below are various Palmer-Bowlus flumes sizes, maximum flow rates (GPM and M3PM) as well as the maximum usable head.

Size

Maximum Flow (GPM)

Maximum Flow (M3PM)

Maximum Head (Feet)

4″ 51.7 0.196 0.33
6″ 149.5 0.566 0.45
8″ 301.8 1.142 0.50
10″ 523.3 1.981 0.75
12″ 822.3 3.112 0.90
15″ 1,430 5.413 1.14
18″ 2,288 8.660 1.35
21″ 3,393 12.843 1.58
24″ 4,625 17.506 1.80
27″ 6,227 23.569 2.00
30″ 8,169 30.920 2.25

Palmer-Bowlus flumes are available is sizes up to 54″